HEAVEN ON EARTH AVIAN ACRES by Cherane Pefley
Laws & Regulations pertaining to the Blue headed Macaws
Prop. 12.18 – p. 1
CONSIDERATION OF PROPOSALS FOR AMENDMENT OF APPENDICES I AND II
Ara couloni is proposed for transfer from Appendix II to Appendix I in accordance with Article II (1) of
the Convention meeting the criteria D given in Annex 1 of Resolution Conf. 9.24.
The Federal Republic of Germany (on behalf of the Member States of the European Community).
? An Appendix I listing is proposed for the blue-headed macaw (Ara couloni).
? The range of this species covers parts of Peru, extreme western Brazil and north-western Bolivia where
Ara couloni inhabits the edge of humid lowland evergreen forest in the foothills' area. It is obviously
bound to rivers. Ara couloni is one of those macaw species (together with A. maracana and A. auricollis)
known to have a very low reproductive output.
? Ara couloni is not considered threatened on global level in the 2000 IUCN Red List. However, it has
always been regarded as being uncommon or rare. The last population estimates of roughly 10,000 birds
are almost 10 years old.
? Numbers occurring in trade have increased significantly in the last few years. Illegal trade is increasing as
well. Investigations of the CITES MA in Germany alone have resulted in approximately 30 specimens
seized in the 2001. The interest of aviculturist's is obviously rising at a rate of deep concern.
? Taking into account the even for a macaw low reproductive output of the species and the present rate
of increase in legal and illegal trade Ara couloni meets the Criterium D of Annex 1 that is "The status of
the species is such that if the species is not included in Appendix I, it is likely to satisfy one or more of
the above mentioned criteria within a period of five years".
? Responses of the range states have been received so far by Brazil and Bolivia. Brazil has required to act
as a co-proponent and the Bolivian SA expressed their wish to support the proposal.
C. Supporting statement
1.1 Class: Aves
1.2 Order: Psittaciformes
1.3 Family: Psittacidae
1.4 Genus: Ara
Species: Ara couloni (Sclater, 1876)
1.5 Scientific synonyms: Propyrrhura couloni (Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920)
Prop. 12.18 – p. 2
1.6 Common names: English: Blue-headed macaw
French: Ara de Coulon
Spanish: Guacamayo Cabeciazul
German: Blaukopfara, Gebirgsara
Swedish: blahuvad ara
1.7 Code numbers: A-218.003.008.008
2. Biological parameters
Range states: Peru, Bolivia, Brazil
The range of the Blue -headed macaw reaches from Eastern Peru, where it is recorded in the
Huallaga Valley from Loreto to Hu?nuco and in the Ucayali, Apur?mac, and Pur? river drainage, to
extreme Western Brazil (Acre) south to North-western Bolivia (FORSHAW, 1977; DEL HOYO et al.,
Ara couloni inhabits the edge of humid lowland evergreen forest, along rivers and by clearings.
Locally it is found in the outskirt of towns. It occurs up to 1550 meters. Recent observations
suggest the Blue-headed macaw seems to be more a species of foothills rather than lowland (DEL
HOYO et al., 1997). Furthermore, a close association with rivers seems to exist (LLOYD, 1999;
CHAMPLIN, 1999; ARMONIA, 2001). The Blue-headed macaw also visits clay licks, which are quiet
numerous at least in South-eastern Peru (GILARDI, in litt., 2001; SALAZAR in litt., 2001). They were
observed to enter a cavity in a Bamboo tree (GE CHRISTIAN, 1999), which might be used for nesting.
The reproductive period is assumed to be between October and April (HOPPE, 1992). In the Manu
National Park one pair out of ten cared for a single young in April (MACHADO DE BARROS, 1995). The
occurrence of the species can be erratic in the lowland of South-eastern Peru (PARKER et al., 1991),
suggesting some nomadism in response to food supplies (COLLAR, 2001).
2.2 Habitat availability
In Peru much of the species habitat seems to be in good shape (GILARDI, in litt., 2001). However,
the Bolivian forest is threatened by the expansion of the logging industry (SZWAGRZAK, in litt., 2002).
DEL HOYO et al. (1997) mentioned that due to the species habitat preferences it might profit from
2.3 Population status
According to the latest IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (HILTON-TAYLOR, 2000) the global
status of the species Ara couloni is not endangered. However, this species has always been
recorded as uncommon or rare, only locally common around settlements (DEL HOYO et al., 1997).
Sightings vary greatly between sites. In Peru it is always reported as very rare in the Tambopata
Research Centre (GILARDI in litt., 2001; SALAZAR in litt., 2001; MUNN in litt., 2002a) with a mean
group size of 1.8 birds (LLOYD, 1999), whereas small groups are regularly seen in Posada Amazonas
(KRATTER, 1999; SALAZAR in litt., 2001) or in San Lorenzo (SALAZAR in litt., 2001). The highest
numbers seem to occur in the Lower Urubamba with 10 – 30 individuals appearing daily at clay
licks (MUNN in litt., 2002a,b). There are nearly no records available for the northern part of the
distribution in Peru. MUNN (in litt., 2002b) reported that the Blue-headed macaw was seen in the
Pacaya Samiria National Reserve in Northern Amazon of Peru. In Bolivia the species was recorded
seven times in the Pando region between 1986 to 1990 along various rivers (Armonia, 2001). A
few individuals were observed in the Bolivian foothills near Rio Beni, its southernmost distribution,
Prop. 12.18 – p. 3
in 1989 (PARKER et al., 1991). In 1997 four individuals were sighted near Chiv? (Department Pando)
during an expedition of FOPAMADE (SZWAGRZAK, 1997 in SZWAGRZAK in litt., 2002).
Population guesses were roughly 10,000 individuals in 1990 (LAMBERT et al., 1993 in COLLAR, 2001).
2.4 Population trends
At present there are no population trends available. In 1990 the species was categorised as stable
(LAMBERT et al., 1993 in COLLAR, 2001). SZWAGRZAK (in litt., 2002) reports that the species was
bought by illegal timber traders and that it has become very rare in Bolivia.
2.5 Geographic trends
The Blue-headed macaw has a limited distribution with nearly no recent records from its northern
distribution. In the southern part, this species is reported as rare. At present, no geographic trends
2.6 Role of the species in its ecosystem
The role of the Blue-headed macaw in its ecosystem is insufficiently known. However, this species
feeds on figs (RICALDE, 1999) and probably other fruits and might play a role in the distribution of
Although Ara couloni has not as yet been recorded as the prey of other predators, it is likely that
reptiles prey upon eggs and nestlings and birds of prey might take young and adult Blue-headed
macaws. Eagles might be possible predators because macaws (Ara ambigua, Ara ararauna but also
Ara couloni) have been observed to leave clay licks, e.g. in Tambopata, when an eagle approaches
Trade can become a threat for the Blue-headed macaw taking into account its low reproduction rate.
Like the Illiger’s macaw (Ara maracana) and the Yellow- collared macaw (Ara auricollis), with which
it forms a superspecies (DEL HOYO et al., 1997), the Blue-headed macaw has a very low
reproductive output. The only available record from the field reports that only one pair out of ten
was observed to feed a single young (MACHADO DE BARROS, 1995). In captivity clutch size is 2-4
eggs (VIT, 1996; VIT, 1997). This species was nearly unknown in international trade until 1997 (DEL
HOYO et al., 1997). However, at present about 150 birds are in captivity in the Czech Republic and
Slovakia alone (COLLAR, 2001). Prices are very high with 3,500 $ per individual in Peru in 2000
(LIPPERT in litt., 2000b) and 12,500 US $ in the Czech Republic and Slovakia (LIPPERT in COLLAR,
2001). In Bolivian markets prices were about 15 to 20 US $ in 1991 and 1995 (SZWAGRZAK, in litt.,
2002). The same author reports that the ‘Mini Macaw FAQ’ (April 2002) mentioned prices
between 300 – 1,100 US $ in 2002, but says that the source is unknown (SZWAGRZAK, in litt.,
2002). In Europe the species was offered for about 4,000 to 7,000 US $ in 1999 (LIPPERT, in litt.,
2002). WRIGHT et al. (2001) showed that high prices are set in part by demand, and demand for a
particular species is influenced by its rarity and attributes related to the species value as a pet. In
their investigation, prices above 500 US $ were significantly related to higher poaching rates. Thus,
it can be assumed that trade will continue and even increase. GILARDI (in litt., 2001) pointed out
that the species can face a similar fate as the Blue-throated macaw (Ara glaucogularis), which was
always rare and trapped to numbers in the wild of around 100 individuals in less than ten years.
Habitat destruction can be a further threat at least in Bolivia (SZWAGRZAK, in litt., 2002).
Prop. 12.18 – p. 4
3. Utilization and trade
3.1 National utilization
Nearly nothing is known about national utilisation. The Blue-headed macaw is offered in markets in
Brazil in hundreds possibly originating from Peru (YAMASHITA in litt., 2001). There is one report of a
tame bird in Timpia, Peru, collected as a nestling (LIPPERT in litt., 2000a). The species is also hunted
for its meat (MUNN in litt., 2002b). The species seems to be well known on markets in Bolivia
(SZWAGRZAK, in litt., 2002). In 1991 two birds were sold on a market in Cobija and in 1995 20 –
30 individuals were sold to foreign traders. The traders showed their interest to buy more
individuals of Ara couloni for a much higher price. SZWAGRZAK (in litt., 2002) suspects that 1) this
was not an isolated case and 2) no controls exist.
3.2 Legal international trade
Ara couloni was virtually unknown in trade until 1995. From 1995 to 2000 trade in this species has
increased tremendously (see Fig. 1). The proportion of specimens reported to be captive born or
bred (sources: C, F) increased steadily (see Fig. 2), making up 100 % in 2000. Peru has reported
direct exports of altogether 16 wild-caught birds from 1983-1999 whereas importing countries
have reported only the direct import of 2 wild specimens from Peru plus 7 confiscated ones, making
a total of 9 specimens.
These diverging data do not necessarily indicate that illegal trade has taken place. They may derive
from different reporting systems used for the compilation of the CITES Annual Reports of the
member states as well as year-overlapping transfers.
The species is a high valuable resource. Formerly, there was only low interest of aviculturists in this
species, however, since 1999 interest has been increased resulting in very high prices of e.g.
12,500 USD in the Czech Republic and Slovakia (LIPPERT in COLLAR, 2001).
3.3 Illegal trade
Illegal trade of Ara couloni is of increasing significance (see Table 1) and the high prices lead one to
assume that illegal trade will continue with even higher numbers.
In the 1990s at least 50 Blue-headed macaws were smuggled over Russia to the Czech Republic.
Of these several were transferred to western Europe (VIT, 1996). It is very likely that all captive Ara
couloni in Europe and possibly anywhere in the world are illegal, except those confiscated and
entrusted to zoos (SAP, 1997). In Germany investigations of the CITES Management Authorities
are ongoing with regard to illegal trade of Ara couloni. These have resulted in approximately 30
specimens seized, some of them already even confiscated (pers. comm. German MA, 2001).
Table 1: Number of confiscated specimens of Ara couloni involved in trade transfers 1983 -1999
(Source: World Trade Data provided by WCMC 2001, 2002)
Year Numbers of confiscated birds mentioned in
imports reported exports/re-exports reported
1983 - 1994 0 0
1995 2 0
1996 0 0
1997 0 7
1998 20 15
1999 18 6
Prop. 12.18 – p. 5
3.4 Actual or potential trade impacts
There is an increasing interest in the Blue-headed macaw by aviculturists and commercial breeders.
Due to its rarity, low reproductive output and limited distribution an increasing trade in this species
can possibly damage the existing population seriously in the future.
The high numbers of birds kept illegally are alarming. Furthermore, the high prices since 1999
(LIPPERT in COLLAR, 2001) lead assume a high demand in this species (WRIGHT et al., 2001).
Number of specimens
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
Figure 2: Number of captive born/bred specimens of Ara couloni compared to numbers of
presumably wild-taken specimens (code: W, I, U) turning up in trade transfers 1995-2000
(according to imports reported; data provided by WCMC 2001, 2002)
origin captive born/bred
origin presumably wild
Figure 1: Specimens of Ara couloni (all sources) turning up
in trade transfers 1983-2000
[Source: World trade data provided by WCMC 2001, 2002]
1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
Number of specimens
Prop. 12.18 – p. 6
Therefore, it is likely that capture pressure will increase for Ara couloni. Although total trade
numbers are not extremely high, collection of nestlings or capture of adult birds can have a negative
impact on the species’ demography due to its overall rarity. The former can lead to a low
recruitment rate and an increasingly geriatric population (JONES et al., 1995). Removal of potential
breeding pairs can further decrease the already low reproductive output. Trappers catch the Blueheaded
macaw at clay licks (MUNN in litt., 2002b). This incurs the danger that whole populations
might be removed from the wild. Therefore, trade can have detrimental effects on the species
survival in the future.
3.5 Captive breeding for commercial purposes (outside country of origin)
There are only few data available about breeding for commercial purposes. The World Conservation
Monitoring Centre has provided data about international trade with captive bred (second generation)
birds (WCMC, 2001). Between 1983 and 2000 around 16 captive bred birds were traded all of
them in 1999. Commercial breeding centres on the Philippines and Tenerife produced 37 young
between 1998 and 2001 (Table 2; REINSCHMIDT in litt.; 2001; Bundesamt f?r Naturschutz, 2002).
Table 2: Breeding success of Ara couloni in two commercial breeding centres
1998 1999 2001
Birds International, Philippines 3 14 12
Loro Parque, Tenerife - - 8
Most Blue-headed macaws are in private collections. Breeding records are available from the
Society of Species Conservation and Aviculture (AZ), the largest society for private breeders in
Germany. In 1998 six young were produced from two pairs (AZN, 2000). It is not known how
many of these and further birds are sold commercially.
From 1998 to 2001 fourteen confiscated Blue-headed macaws were kept at Fundaci?n ARA,
Mexico, where they successfully raised four young. Lack of financial support to Fundaci?n ARA
caused that the entire group was moved to Bronx Zoo in 2001 (INIGO-ELIAS in litt.; 2002a). It is
planed to establish a breeding programme for conservation purposes for Ara couloni (BRUNING in litt.,
4. Conservation and Management
4.1 Legal status
In Brazil Ara couloni is protected by the Brazilian legislation for Fauna and Flora, which
states that all species with distribution and/or occurrence in Brazilian territory are legally
protected and only can be assessed with the authorization of the Brazilian Institute for the
Environment and Natural Renewable Resources (IBAMA). Although the species is absent
from the Brazilian Official List of Endangered Fauna, the species is under protection
according to the Brazilian laws for wildlife fauna. At the moment the Brazilian Official List of
Endangered Species is being revised and the situation of Ara couloni is being evaluated
(BAMPI AND TAVARES, in litt., 2002).
Ara couloni is not protected in Peru and Bolivia. However, Peru appears to have a quota
system for export of birds for more than thirteen years. It allows export of few species only
and requires a permit. The Blue-headed macaw is not included in the list of tradable species
Prop. 12.18 – p. 7
(SAP, 1997). Since 1995 the Timpia tribe banned hunting and capture of macaws and other
parrots in the Lower Urubamba near Manu National Park, Peru (MUNN, 1998).
In 1981 Ara couloni was listed in CITES Appendix II. There is an EU import suspension for
the Blue-headed macaw from Bolivia since 23 October 1986 (import suspension art. 10.1.(b)
under old regulation EC Reg. 3626/82, now under EC Reg. 338/97) and from Brazil since 19
October 1988 [(import suspension art. 10.1.(b) under old regulation EC Reg. 3626/82, now
under EC Reg. 338/97; WCMC, 1999]. In 1997 the species was included in Annex B of the
EU Wildlife Trade Regulation.
The US Wild Bird Conservation Act of 1992 bans all CITES Appendix II species, which
included Ara couloni, unless the Secretary of the Interior is satisfied that a scientificallybased
management plan exists for the species (PHPA/LIPI/BirdLife International -IP, 1998).
4.2 Species management
4.2.1 Population monitoring
At present, the Blue-headed macaw is not monitored. Recent information is available only
from the southern part of its distribution where tourists and scientists record this species in
the national parks near and around clay licks.
Population monitoring of the Blue-headed macaw is urgently needed to assess population
status, breeding success and population trends.
4.2.2 Habitat conservation
Few of the areas inhabited by Ara couloni are protected, most are located in the southern
part of its distribution. In Peru, the species was observed in the Manu National Park
(MACHADO DE BARROS, 1995; GILARDI in litt., 2001), and at and around clay licks in the
Tambopata-Candamo Reserve Zone and Bahuaja-Sonene National Park (LLOYD, 1999;
CHAMPLIN, 1999). The Tambopata-Candamo Reserve Zone was given National Reserve
status in 2000 (Anon., 2000). Despite the excellent protection of the Manu National Park
there are still serious problems. Colonists are encroaching on park boundaries and oil and
mining concerns are interested in this region. Furthermore, park’s boundaries have never
been adequately mapped. It should be mentioned that the status of the Reserve zones is
only temporary (MUNN, 2002c). In the Northern part of Peru the species occurs in the
Pacaya Samiria National Reserve (MUNN in litt., 2002b). In Brazil, in the range where the
Blue-headed macaw occurs, protected areas are the Parque National Da Serra do Divisor and
the Floresta Nacional do Macaua (YAMASHITA in litt., 2001). Furthermore, there are at least
three other areas (extrativism reserves) with potential occurrence of the species, the total
area (conservation units) under protection by Brazilian law is approximately 1,750,000
hectares. Considering this number, there is no information about the percentage of habitat
and/or area used by Ara couloni (BAMPI AND TAVARES, in litt., 2002). The species might also
occur in the Madidi National Park in Bolivia.
4.2.3 Management measures
There are no management measures proposed at pre sent, although urgently needed.
Surveys should be undertaken to assess population size in the different locations and to
answer the following questions. Is there a continuous distribution of the species or is it
fragmented? How rapid does the population of this species decline or does it remain stable?
Prop. 12.18 – p. 8
What are the limiting factors for the low reproductive output (poaching, natural predation,
diseases, number of suitable nest trees etc.)? The feeding spectrum of the species should be
investigated. Is the Blue-headed macaw a feeding generalist or specialist, which depends on
particular plant species? Is there a conflict between the species’ and man’s requirements?
To which amount does capture influence population numbers? Can trade be controlled? Last
but not least, is there a threat because of habitat destruction?
A tight cooperation between the three countries where the Blue-headed macaw occurs is
essential for a successful management.
4.3 Control measures with regard to international trade
International import restrictions seem not to be effective, although legal trade of wild caught Ara
couloni into the European Union dropped to zero. However, increasing numbers of this species have
been traded illegally (WCMC, 2001). Furthermore, the quota system developed by the Peruvian
government (SAP, 1997) is currently insufficient to prevent trade with the Blue-headed macaw.
5. Information on Similar Species
The Blue-headed macaw is closely related to Ara auricollis and Ara maracana with whom it forms a
superspecies (DEL HOYO et al., 1997). However, all three species are very distinct in their plumage
coloration (FORSHAW, 1977).
6. Other Comments
Both, Management and Scientific Authorities of the range states, were contacted in March 2002.
Responses were received from Bolivia and Brazil.
The Bolivian Scientific Authority recommends to support the proposal (Fax of Bolivian SA of April 15
2002, see attachments). Additional information on the status of this species in Bolivia was transmitted
as well by A. SZWAGRZAK, consultant to the Bolivian SA.
The Brazilian Management Authority ( Fax of April 15 2002, see attachments) provided additional
information as well and agreed to participate as co-proponent.
7. Additional Remarks
Anon., 2000: Tambopata given national reserve status. NEOORN, 23 September 2000.
Anon., 2001: Rainforest Expeditions, Wildlife Info of Tambopata.
Armonia, 2001: Armonia database provided by Asociaci?n Armon?a, Bolivia.
AZN, 2000: AZ-Nachzuchtstatistik 1998. AZN 3: 175-187.
BAMPI, M.I. & F.C. TAVARES, in litt., 2002: Information provided by the Management Authority to CITES –
Brazil (Fauna General Coordination) to the German Scientific Authority to CITES.
BRUNING, D., 2002: email from 15 Feb. 2002. New Wildlife Conservation Society Bronx Zoo.
Bundesamt f?r Naturschutz, 2002: Data provided by Birds International to the German Scientific
Authority to CITES.
Prop. 12.18 – p. 9
CHAMPLIN, P., 1999: email to NEOORN, 22 Sept. 1999 provided by Manuel Plenge.
Collar, N., 2001: Blue-headed macaw Ara (Propyrrhura) couloni. Provided by Birdlife International.
DEL HOYO, J., A. ELLIOTT & J. SARGATAL (eds.), 1997: Handbook of the birds of the world, Vol. 4,
Sandgrouse t o Cuckoos. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
FORSHAW, J. M., 1977: Parrots of the world. T.F.H. Publications, Inc., Neptune.
FRIAS, M.S., in litt., 2002: Information provided by the Scientific Authority to CITES - Bolivia (Museo
Nacional de Historia Natural, La Paz).
GE CHRISTIAN, D., 1999 : email to NEOORN, 24 Sept. 1999 provided by Manuel Plenge.
GILARDI, J.D., in litt., 2001: email from 4 Dec. 2001. The World Parrot Trust.
HILTON-TAYLOR, C. (compiler), 2000: 2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN, Gland,
Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. xviii + 61pp.
HOPPE, D., 1992: Aras: Die Arten und Rassen, Haltung und Zucht. Vol. 2, Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart.
INIGO-ELIAS, E., in litt., 2002a: email from 1 Feb. 2002. Conservation Program, Cornell Lab. of
INIGO-ELIAS, E., in litt., 2002b: email from 28 Jan. 2002. Conservation Program, Cornell Lab. of
JONES, M.J., M.D. LINSLEY & S.J. MARSDEN, 1995: Population sizes, status and habitat associations of the
restricted-range species of Su mba, Indonesia. Bird Conservation International 5 (1): 21-52.
KRATTER, A., 1999: email to NEOORN, 23 Sept. 1999 provided by Manuel Plenge.
LIPPERT, J., in litt., 2000a: letter from 12 April 2000 to German Scientific Authority to CITES.
LIPPERT, J., in litt., 2000b: letter from 5 June 2000 to German Scientific Authority to CITES.
LIPPERT, J., in litt., 2002: email from 14 March 2002 to German Scientific Authority to CITES.
LLOYD, H., 1999: email to NEOORN, 21 Sept. 1999 provided by Manuel Plenge.
MACHADO DE BARROS, Y., 1995: Der Gebirgsara Ara couloni, Beobachtungen im Manu Nationalpark.
Papageien 8: 241.
MUNN, C., 1998: Letter from the field. Parrotdata. www.parrotdata.com/articlesny/artikler.asp?aid=115.
MUNN, C., in litt., 2002a: email from 28 Jan. 2002.
MUNN, C., in litt., 2002b: email from 28 Jan. 2002.
MUNN, C. A., 2002c: Conservation efforts in Manu and cooperation with local peoples. The Living Edens
PARKER, T. A. III, A. CASTILLO, M. GELL-MANN & O. ROCHA, 1991: Records of new and unusual birds from
northern Bolivia. Bull. B.O.C. 111 (3): 120-138.
PHPA/LIPI/BirdLife International-IP, 1998: Yellow-crested Cockatoo Recovery Plan. PHPA/LIPI/BirdLife
International-Indonesian Programme, Bogor, Indonesia.
REINSCHMIDT, M., in litt.; 2001: email from 5 Dec. 2001. Curator Loro Parque.
RICALDE, D., 1999: email to NEOORN, 20 Sept. 1999 provided by Manuel Plenge.
SALAZAR, E., in litt., 2001: email from 23 Nov. 2001. Investigador en Ornitologia Proyecto BIODAMAZ -
SAP, 1997: Achtung – illegale Aras. Report of the ‘Stiftung Avifauna Protecta’. Gef. W elt 6: 194.
Prop. 12.18 – p. 10
SZWAGRZAK, A., in litt., 2002: Information provided to the German Scientific Authority to CITES.
VIT, R., 1996: Der Blaukopf- oder Gebirgsara. Gef. Welt 11: 375-376.
VIT, R., 1997: Der Blaukopf- oder Gebirgsara. Gef. Welt 6: 193-194.
WCMC, 1999: Review of Annex B species, Part 12. – Datasheets provided by the World Conservation
Monitoring Centre for the 13th meeting of the Scientific Review Group of the European Community,
June 23, 1999: 47-48.
WCMC, 2001: World trade data, 1983-2000. provided by World Conservation Monitoring Centre.
WCMC, 2002: World trade data, 1998-2000. provided by World Conservation Monitoring Centre.
WRIGHT, T. F., C.A. TOFT, E. ENKERLIN-HOEFLICH, et al., 2001: Nest poaching in neotropical parrots.
Conservation Biology 15 (3): 710-720.
YAMASHITA, C., in litt., 2001: email from 30 Nov. 2001.
Prop. 12.18 – p. 11
Prop. 12.18 – p. 12
Prop. 12.18 – p. 13
Wild Bird Conservation Act of 1992. This Act restricted the importation of Exotic Birds into the United States. An approved List for Import was Cooperative Breeding Programs and at this time no longer is in effect.
Cherane Pefley Avianitarian